Aromatic spice mix: atraf al-tib (أَطْراف الطِّيب)

A highly fragrant blend of key spices, which was also known as afwah al-tib (أفواه الطيب) and already appears in the earliest Arabic recipe collection. It continued to be in use until the 15th century. Fortunately, the author of a 13th-century Levantine cookery book provides a list of the ingredients: spikenard, betel leaf, bay leaf, nutmeg, mace, cardamom, cloves, rosebuds, ash tree fruit, long pepper, ginger, and black pepper. The mixture was used most often alongside mint, rue, or saffron. In about one-third of the recipes where it is called for, there is also pepper, olive oil, sesame oil or wine vinegar present. It is not used very often in meat or fish dishes; instead, it is found in beverages, sweets, pickles, perfumes, and even the ancestor to the modern hummus. In this recreation, betel leaf and ash tree fruit were omitted.

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